Acidification Potential (AP): Emissions that contribute to acid rain which can damage ecosystems, oceans, and
Ammonia (NH3): Gaseous emission that contributes negatively to acidification potential and human health.
Anthropogenic: Man made.
Biodiversity: Changes in habitat, climate, wildlife and plant species that result in environmental degradation.
Carbon dioxide (CO2): Greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 1.
Carbon footprint: Total CH4, N2O and CO2 emitted and normalized based on their global warming potential
expressed per unit of body weight.
Direct emissions: Emissions occurring from the actual entity. For example, emissions from the animal itself or
emissions from a broiler used inside a packing plant.
Energy footprint: Fossil fuels used to produce 1 unit of body weight.
Environmental footprint: A measure of environmental impact usually expressed in unit of production.
Eco‐efficiency analysis (EEA): BASF life cycle assessment tool.
Indirect emissions: Emissions occurring from the production of resources used, for example, the impact of
Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM): Process based model developed by USDA‐ARS scientist, Al Rotz.
Low density polyethylene (LDPE): First plastic produced in 1933 using a high pressure process via free radical
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): Method of evaluating potential economic, environmental and social impacts
through the entire value chain.
Global warming potential (GWP): A relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas molecule traps and
holds in the atmosphere.
Greenhouse gases (GHG): Gases that contribute to climate change.
Meat Animal Research Center (MARC): USDA‐ARS meat animal research center in Clay Center, Nebraska.
Methane (CH4): Greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 21.
Nitrous oxide (N2O): Greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 310.
Nitrate leaching: Nitrate (NO3
‐) can be carried by percolating water beyond the soil root zone and towards
agricultural tile drainage systems. This loss of nutrients (also called leaching) usually occurs at times of the year
when water (either by irrigation, rain or snow) exceeds evapotranspiration and the soil is near its saturation
capacity. Under such conditions, soil water moving downwards recharges groundwater or contributes to tile
drain flow, carrying nitrates with it.
Ozone depletion potential (ODP): Emissions that deplete the upper ozone and can result in increased radiation
hitting the earth’s surface.
Photochemical ozone creation potential: Also called summer smog, can cause respiratory problems in people
and injure plant tissues, stopping photosynthesis.
Pre‐chain: Impact occurring from the production of resources used, for example, the impact of producing
Process based model: Computer models that use mathematical equations to predict biological process as they
occur in nature.
Reactive Nitrogen: Includes ammonia emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, NOx (from combustion) emissions, and
Nitrate leaching and runoff expressed per unit of body weight.
Relevance Factor: Help put into context the significance of each environmental impact for the eco‐efficiency
Secondary emissions: Emissions occurring from the production of resources used, for example, the impact of
Sustainability: Meeting the growing demand for beef by balancing environmental responsibility, economic
opportunity, and social diligence.
Toxicity potential (TP): The relative toxicity of a chemical to humans.
User benefit (UB): 1 lb of minimally processed boneless edible consumed beef.
Water footprint: Water used per unit of body weight.